*Geographical time-space* is a cartographic representation where the geographical surface is represented as cones, and the networks is represented as edges in three dimensions. The geographical time-space principles are based on a series of three equations that define the geometry of cones and of edges.

The geometry of cones depends on the ratio of speed. Terrestrial speed are slow while long distance flights are fast. The fastest speed is *s*_{max} while the slower terrestrial speed *s*_{amb} is attached to the route *amb*. The height of the cone will follow the equation 1.

In spherical geometry, the fastest edge is not a straight euclidean line, but rather a geodesic, or great circle edge between two cities, following the curvature of the earth. In the simplest variant of the model, a slower edge is drawn as two chained rectilinear segments of equal length, in the plane formed by the two cities orthogonal to the surface of the earth. The general principle of the model states that the length of the edge *amb*, in figure 2, is proportional to the length of the fastest speed edge *g*, hence to the ratio of speed. The equation 2 give the height *om’* in function of the maximum speed speed, of theta, and *r* the radius of earth.

Finally, in the case of aircraft links with length below 2000 kilometers the formula of the length of the segment *om′*becomes as shown on equation 3.

**Edit: **More description of the principles and formulas and can be found in the annexes of the article: A L’Hostis, F Abdou, 2021, What Is the Shape of Geographical Time-Space? A Three-Dimensional Model Made of Curves and Cones, *ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf*

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